7.9. APPENDIX I.

Summary of main results from studies dealing with effects of ultrasonic and radio transmitters on fish.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Atlantic sailfish

(
Istiophorus platypterus)

 
Externally attached   Field 8 2 h 56 min-28 h 21 min Seven fish survived. One fish sustained severe eye injury and was killed by a shark 6 h 25 min after release Jolley & Irby (1979)
Atlantic salmon -juveniles

(
Salmo salar)
Surgically-implanted 1.3 g Laboratory 5 tagged parr (127-172 mm), 5 tagged smolts (122-189 mm), 5 sham-tagged (surgery carried out, but no trans-mitter inserted) and controls

 
3-150 days No significant effects of tagging on growth, feeding or swimming behaviour in either parr or smolts. Recovery from the surgical implantation was rapid and total, infection was absent and physiological processes such as smoltification and maturation of testes in precocious parr were unaffected. Expulsion of the transmitter through the body wall occurred in a number of fish without adversely affecting the animals. Moore et al.,, (1990)
Atlantic salmon -parr

(
Salmo salar)
Externally attached 2.7 g in air, volume 0.4 ml, density 6.7 g/ml Laboratory 50 fish with ultrasonic tags, 50 fish with Carlin tags and 50 controls. 17 April 7 May Attachment of transmitter significantly affected the growth rates of the fish. Fish less than 160 mm in length lost weight and showed no change in length. Fish over 160 mm in length put on weight, however less than the controls. For fish between 160 and 180 mm in length, the increase in length and weight was significantly smaller in tagged fish than in untagged fish. For fish over 180 mm in length, no difference could be detected in the length gains between tagged and untagged fish, while the increase in weight was smaller in tagged fish than in controls.

 
Greenstreet & Morgan (1989)
Atlantic salmon -parr

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 0.8-0.9 g, 12.5 x 9 x 4.5 mm Laboratory tanks 8 tagged and 9 controls Eight days Three of the fish regurgitated the transmitters. The proportion of fish that fed was significantly higher in the control group compared with the tagged group. No food was eaten on day 1 or 8 by test fish that retained the transmitters. Food was also eaten by some fish that had rejected the tags.

 
Armstrong & Rawlings (1993)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Atlantic salmon -smolts

(
Salmo salar)
Externally attached and inserted in stomach Different sizes: 1.25-3.94 g in water, 4.00-6.67 g in air Laboratory In total 190 tagged, 79 sham tagged and 55 controls (< 20 cm)

 
  Effects of transmitters on stamina were measured. Critical swimming speeds were similar for fish in control groups and two of the groups with internal transmitters. The widest internal tag (19 x 10 cm) caused a significant decrement in swimming performance. Externally placed transmitters caused a decrease in swimming speed compared with untagged fish.

 
McCleave & Stred (1975)
Atlantic salmon -smolts

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 4.0 g in water, 5.6 g in air, 33 x 8 mm Laboratory In total 149 tagged fish and 152 controls (about 20 cm) Up to 24 hours The tagged fish were able to compensate for negative buoyancy induced by the tag if permitted to fill their swim-bladders by gulping air. Smolts denied access to the water surface after tagging never regained buoyancy. It is recom-mended to be aware of behavioural effects caused by negative buoyancy for 2-8 hours after tagging and release.

 
Fried et al.,, (1976)
Atlantic salmon

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 10-16 g in water, (0.2-0.4 % of the fish weight in air), 6.59.6 x 1.9 cm

 
Field 40 (3-6 kg, 67-84 cm fork length) 21 June 8 November Five fish regurgitated the transmitter soon after release. Two salmon were recaptured 32 and 42 days after tagging and release. Neither showed ill effects from carrying the trans-mitter. McCleave et al.,, (1978)
Bass

-juvenile

(
Dicentrarchus

labrax
)

 
Surgically-implanted   Laboratory     Tagging had minimal effects on the subsequent survival and behaviour Moore et al.,, (1994)
Bluegill

(
Lepomis macrochirus)
Inserted in stomach 3.38 g, excess mass in water of 2.76 g (2.4 % of the fish's mass)

 
Laboratory 50 tagged , 22 sham handled and 94 controls (ca 130 g)   Effects of negative buoyancy was studied. The fish required about 300 min to reach hydrostatic equilibrium when adjust-ment proceeded within 0.5 m of the surface. Before neutral buoyancy was reached, pectoral fin movements increased. Longer times are required for deeper releases.

 
Gallepp & Magnuson (1972)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Bluegill

(
Lepomis macrochirus)
Surgically-implanted 2.81 g, 2.0 x 1.0 x 0.5 cm Raceway 40 tagged and 40 controls (mean mass 133 g)

 
8 weeks Mortality, adverse morphological effects, altered behaviour and limited healing in bluegills suggest that implanted transmitters impaired their health, especially at higher temperatures.

 
Knights & Lasee (1996)
Carp

(
Cyprinus carpio)
Surgically im-planted and inse-rted in stomach

 
  Field 1 implanted and 1 in stomach 7 weeks Tagged fish kept on having high moving ability and did not appear affected by handling stress Steinbach (1986)
Channel catfish

(
Ictalurus punctatus)
Surgically-implanted Small: 36.4 g Large: 72.8 g both 19 x 90 mm Pond 21 with small tags, 18 with large tags, 20 controls, 20 sham-implanted (mean 3.64 kg)

 
Average 112 days Surgical implantation of transmitters did not increase mortality or decrease growth. 25 of 35 fish lost their transmitters. Retention rate of small transmitters was significantly greater than that of large transmitters. Summerfelt & Mosier (1984)
Channel Catfish

(
Ictalurus punctatus)
Surgically-implanted Large: 20 x 87 mm, 2.0 % of fish mass

Small: 15 x 57, 0.5 % of fish mass

 
Laboratory 74 (0.7-5.2 kg) 23 days Within 23 days, two fish died and 39 fish expelled their transmitters. Tissue reactions and number of incision exits were significantly greater with transmitters of 2.0 % of body mass than with transmitters of 0.5 % of body mass. Marty & Summerfelt (1986)
Chinook salmon

(
Oncorhynchus tsawytscha)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted Large: 68 g in water, 11.5 ± 0.4 x 2.7 cm

Small: 34 g in water, 7.9
± 0.4 x 1.9 cm

 
Field In total 39 with external tags, 24 with internal tags and 64 controls (65-103 cm long, 1,4-12,7 kg)

 
During three migration periods During upstream migration travel times and percent returns did not differ between externally-tagged fish that retained their transmitters from point of release to upstream trapping facili-ties. Externally-tagged fish that lost their transmitters moved upriver more slowly than the controls, although percent returns were similar. Most internally tagged salmon eventually mig-rated downstream. Of those migrating upriver, none crossed the first trapping facility 6.5 km upriver form the release site.

 
Gray & Haynes (1979)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Cod

(
Gadus morhua)
Externally attached 8.26 g in air, 4 g in sea water, 5 x 1 cm Laboratory/

field
(50-70 cm)   Based on drag measurements in a flume, the extra output req-uired for tagged fish to maintain the same steady speed as un-tagged fish was between 3 % and 5 %. and to maintain the same constant rate of acceleration less than 1 %. They concluded that the swimming performance of cod observed by sector-scanning sonar in the southern North Sea was unlikely to have been affected in any significant way by the addition of a tag.

 
Arnold & Holford (1978)
Cod

(
Gadus morhua)
Inserted in stomach 5 g in water, 56 x 16 cm Laboratory 10 tagged (985 g), 10 controls (940 g) 35 days The transmitters did not seem to affect food intake or feeding behaviour. More than half of the salmon regurgitated the transmitter during the first 7 days of the experiment.

 
Lucas & Johnstone (1990)
Coho salmon

(
Oncorhynchus kisutch)
Inserted in stomach 20 g , 6.5 x 2.0 cm (some larger transmitters, 8 mm long, used in one year) Field 186 (405-725 mm)

 
1984-1987 61 salmon were not detected upriver from the release site. Some fish left the river. Some fish died because of predation or handling. Predators were observed in the vicinity of the tagging site, and tagged fish were susceptible to predation. The standard transmitter used did not appear to have any adverse effects on the salmon, although some problems were ex-perienced with the larger transmitters.

 
Eiler (1990)
Colorado squawfish

(
Ptychocheilus lucius)
Surgically-implanted < 1 % of the body mass of the fish Field 97   Results from field studies 1978-1985. No transmitter expulsion was detected. Growth rates of 14 recaptured fish did not differ from 59 nonimplanted dangler-tagged fish of the same size. There was no difference in mortality between implanted and dangler-tagged fish.

 
Tyus (1988).
Crownose ray

(
Rhinoptera bonasus)
Externally attached   Laboratory     Wing-beats/s was used as a measure of energy expenditure. Transmitter attachment had no immediate effect on ray swim-ming behaviour below a transmitter-to-ray mass ratio of 0.03.

 
Blaylock (1990)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Dace

(
Leuciscus leuciscus)

 

 
Externally attached 2.31 g in air, 0.9 g in water, 2.0 x 0.9 x 0.8-0.9 cm Semi-natural conditions 7 tagged and 19 controls (< 300 mm) One experiment of 6 days and one of

10 weeks
By the second day, the behaviour of the tagged fish appeared normal and they were integrating with the rest of the shoal. Median condition factors of tagged fish did not differ from those of untagged fish over a 10-week period. Results from field studies in River Frome indicate that release method affect the behaviour. Fish released immediately after tagging often moved significant distances soon after release, while fish allowed to acclimatise for 24 h and released remotely from a holding cage, did not exhibit such behaviour.

 
Beaumont et al.,, (1996)
Lake Ontario brown trout

(
Salmo gairdneri)



 
Externally attached and surgically-implanted   Field 8 externally

25 implanted
Spring and

fall
Transmitter attachment related mortality was 0 and 32 % (externally and surgically-tagged, respectively) Nettles et al.,, (1983)
Largemouth bass

(
Micropterus salmoides)
Externally attached Different types: 5.1-10.5 g in air, 3.3-7.0 g in wa-ter, tag weight in water 1.5-2.5 % of fish mass.

 
Pond     The feeding rate of tagged largemouth bass was lower than that of untagged fish over a 3.5 week period. It was concluded that weights of external transmitters in water should be less than 1.5 % of the fish weight.

 
Ross & McCormick (1981)
Largemouth bass

(
Micropterus salmoides)
Surgically-implanted   Hatchery pounds and laboratory 10 tagged and 10 controls + 8 fish for buoyancy compensation tests

 
  No differences in swimming movement or catchability between transmitter and control fish. All fish were observed feeding and spawning. Negative buoyancy of the transmitters affected bass temporarily, and fin beats increased only during the time it took the fish to adjust to the effect of the transmitter.

 
Crumpton (1982)
Muskellunge

(
Esox masquinongy)
Surgically-implanted   Field 5 6-11 days No apparent effect of tagging on equilibrium, swimming or feeding. No apparent abnormally high amount of movement immediately after release.

 
Crossman (1977)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Plaice

(
Pleuronectes platessa)

 
Externally attached 8.26 g in air, 4 g in sea water, 5 x 1 cm Laboratory/

field
(36-52 cm)   Based on drag measurements in a flume, the extra output req-uired for tagged fish to maintain the same steady speed as un-tagged fish was between 3 % and 5 % and to maintain the same constant rate of acceleration less than 1 %. It is conclu-ded that the swimming performance of plaice observed by sector-scanning sonar in the southern North Sea was unlikely to have been affected by the addition of a tag.

 
Arnold & Holford (1978)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted   Laboratory     Transmitter mass caused a highly significant decrease in spontaneous activity and avoidances/pursuits, while transmitter length decreased spontaneous activity only. The operation itself did not perturb the animals.

 
Zimmermann (1980)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Externally attached Mk V tags: single package. Mk VI tags:

two packages of equal size mo-unted symmetri-cally on each side of the fish. Both: 1.55 g in air, volume 0.78 ml, density 1.99 g/ml

 
Laboratory 8 fish with Mk V tags, 4 fish with Mk VI tags and 8 controls (length 11.5 ± 0.5 cm)   Effects on tail beat frequency (TBF) and operculum beat rate (OPB) of rainbow trout was measured at different swimming speeds. Both types of transmitters raised both TBF and OBR. The symmetrical tag affected the behaviour less, especially at low swimming speeds, even though the relative drag was greater by this transmitter. Lewis & Muntz (1984)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted Large: 2.2 g in air, 13 x 19 mm

Small: 1.0 g in air, 10 x 16 mm

 
Aquarium 15 with large transmitters and 15 with small transmitters

 
165 175 days Eight fish died during the experiment. Eight fish with large transmitters expelled the transmitter 42-175 days after implantation. Five fish with small transmitters expelled the transmitter 86-175 days after implantation. Chisholm & Hubert (1985)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Externally at-tached, surgi-cally implanted and inserted in stomach 3.0 ± 0.2 g, 2.9 ± 0.2 x 1.0 cm

 
Laboratory 80 (24.5-30.5 cm, 168-372 g) 2 weeks observation in tanks, followed by swimming tests.

 
Only one fish changed dominance rank after tagging. Externally-tagged fish had significantly lower exhaustion times in swimming tests than the other tagged groups and controls. Reduced feeding resulting from stomach insertion was not evident. Mellas & Haynes (1985)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 1-1.6 % of the body mass of the fish, 12.5 x 48 mm Laboratory 21 tagged, 5 sham-implanted and 8 controls (mean mass 327-392 g)

 
7 months No significant difference in mortality or growth occurred between control, sham-implanted and implanted groups. Transmitters became encapsulated by connective tissue. Three fish expelled transmitters via the body wall. Lucas (1989)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 10 g, 13 x 50 mm Pond 10 tagged fish and 10 controls (mean fork length 351 mm)

 
47 days Study close to spawning time. All fish survived and no transmitter expulsion appeared. There were no differences in weight, condition factor, or gonad development between tagged fish and controls. Martin et al.,, (1995)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 2.6 g in air, < 2 % of fish mass Laboratory 11 tagged and 8 controls (240-290 mm fork length)

 
7 days Studied effect of transmitters on social interactions. Dominant fish with dummy transmitters retained their rank and showed no differences from control fish in amounts of agonism and interaction time with subdominant fish. Swanberg & Geist (1997).
Razorback sucker

(
Xyrauchen texanus)
Surgically-implanted < 1 % of the body mass of the fish Field 9   Results from field studies 1978-1985. No transmitter expulsion were detected. Growth rates of 2 recaptured razorback suckers did not differ from 39 nonimplanted dangler-tagged fish of the same size. There was no difference in mortality between implanted and dangler-tagged fish.

 
Tyus (1988).
Rock bass

(
Ambloplites rupestris)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted

 
9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Studied effects on equilibrium and feeding. Rock bass did not seem suitable for internal tagging of the sizes used because of the shape and size of the fish.

 
Chamberlain (1979)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Sauger

(
Stizostedion canadense)
Surgically-implanted   Experimental channels 21 x 2   All specimens which survived to the end of the experiment lost weight; the effect on growth was considered inconclusive. There did not seem to be any relationship between survival and sex or size and the implanted dummy transmitters.

 
Wrenn & Hackney (1979)
Smallmouth bass

(
Micropterus dolomieu)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted 9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Effects on equilibrium and feeding by tagging was studied. It was concluded that for short term tracking (1-2 days), external transmitters in front of the dorsal fin appear best. For long term tracking, internal transmitters seem best.

 
Chamberlain (1979)
Sockeye salmon

(
Oncorhynchus nerka)
Inserted in stomach 20 g , 6.5 x 2.0 cm (some larger transmitters, 8 mm long, used in one year) Field 398 (405-670 mm)

 
1984-1987 68 salmon were not detected upriver from the release site. Some fish left the river. Some fish died because of predation or handling. Predators were observed in the vicinity of the tagging site, and tagged fish were susceptible to predation. It was concluded that the standard transmitter used did not appear to have any adverse effects on the salmon, although some problems were experienced with the larger transmitters.

 
Eiler (1990)
Sockeye salmon

(
Oncorhynchus nerka)
Surgically-implanted   Field 168 Spawning season Radio transmitters were more stressful to fish than the appli-cation of Petersen disks. No evidence that such stress would result in immediate mortality, would impede the fish's ability to migrate to the spawning grounds, or cause the fish to drop out of the study area.

 
Schubert & Scarborough (1996)
Tilapia

(
Oreochromis aureus)

 
Surgically-implanted   Aquaculture tanks 39 (4 with motion sensitive transmitters) Up to 30 months One fish died. With one exception, all fish retained their transmitter until the end of the study. No infections. Low level of activity 12-24 days after surgery, however, the fish maintained their normal diurnal activity rhythm pattern. Suggested that tilapias need 3-4 days to completely compensate the negative buoyancy resulting from anaesthesia and tagging. Thoreaux & Baras (1997)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
White crappies

(
Pomoxis annularis)
Surgically-implanted Small: 3 g in water, 8 x 40 mm

Large: 4 g in water, 16 x 37 mm

 
Field 37 (265-327 mm, 315-530 g) April - October Recaptured fish were in good condition, the incisions were healing well and the fish had fed while carrying the transmitter. Guy et al.,, (1994)
White perch

(
Morone americana)
Externally attached, surgically-implanted and inserted in stomach

 
3.0 ± 0.2 g, 2.9 ± 0.2 x 1.0 cm Laboratory 100 (19.0-31.5 cm, 106-635 g) Swimming tests. 17 of the fish held for 45 days in aquarium afterwards

 
There was no significant difference in exhaustion times among tagged fish and controls. Reduced feeding resulting from stomach insertion was not evident.

 
Mellas & Haynes (1985)
Yellow perch

(
Perca flavescens)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted 9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Studied effects of tagging on equilibrium and feeding. Concluded that for short term tracking (1-2 days), external transmitters in front of the dorsal fin appear best. For long term tracking, internal transmitters seem best.

 
Chamberlain (1979)
Yellow perch

(
Perca flavescens)
Externally attached Different types, 5.1-10.5 g in air, 3.3-7.0 g in water, weight in water 1.5-2.5 % of fish weight

 
Pond     Tagged fish were more susceptible to predation and more sensitive to environmental stress than were controls. Feeding and respiration rates were similar among tagged and control groups over a 6-week period. It was concluded from the results that weights of external transmitters in water should be less than 1.5 % of the fish weight.

 
Ross & McCormick (1981)

 

7.10. Appendix II. Downloadable information sheets

Description of the ideal anaesthetics

(modified after Marking & Meyer, 1985, in Summerfelt & Smith, 1990)

 

      a)&#9;Induction < 15 min, and ideally < 3 min

      b)&#9;Recovery < 5 min

      c)&#9;No toxicity for fish, and large tolerance margins for concentration

      d)&#9;No persisting effect on fish physiology and behaviour

      e)&#9;Fast excretion and/or catabolism, leaving no residues in fish tissues

      f)&#9;No acclimatory or cumulative effects

      g)&#9;No danger for operators

      d)&#9;Easy preparation

      i)&#9;Low Cost

       

Indicative list of the cost (1998 levels) of the main anaesthetics used in fish tagging. The cost of 1 litre of anaesthetic solution is calculated for cyprinid species at 15°C.

 

Compound

Presentation

Cost

(ECU, VAT excl.)

Cost per litre of anaesthetic solution

(ECU, VAT excl.)

Amobarbital Powder 312 / 50 g

0.94

Benzocaine Crystals 91 / kg

0.01

2-phenoxy-ethanol Liquid 25 / l

0.01

Quinaldine (90 %) Liquid 96 / l

0.03

Quinaldine sulphate Powder 114 / 25 g

0.11

Tricaine Crystals 180 / 100 g

0.18

Xylocaine (lidocaine) Powder, Crystals 111 / 250 g

0.11

 

 

Tentative key for decision making when choosing between anaesthetics for fish handling and tagging

 

 



Criteria

    1.

Fish destined (C) or not destined (N) for consumption by humans

    2.

Deep anaesthesia required (D) or sedation only (S, e.g. weighing)

    3.

Natural environments (M), or experimental facilities, aquaculture (A)

    4.

High or low volume of anaesthetic solution requested (H / L)

Anaesthetics, in decreasing order of preference

        (*) = expensive, (#) = difficult to implement

CDMH:

Tricaine (stock solution)

CDML:

Tricaine (stock solution) (*), Hypothermia(#)

CDAH:

Tricaine (crystals), Hypothermia

CDAL:

Hypothermia, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

CSMH:

Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide (#), Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

CSML:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Tricaine (solution stock) (*),

Carbon dioxide (#)

CSAH:

Tricaine (crystals), Carbon dioxide

CSAL:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Carbon dioxide, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

NDMH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (stock solution)

NDML:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (stock solution) (*)

NDAH:

Tricaine (crystals), 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia

NDAL:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

NSMH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide, Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

NSML:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution) (*), Carbon dioxide (#)

NSAH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide, Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

NSAL:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Carbon dioxide, 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate

 

 

Typical concentrations of tricaine and 2-phenoxy-ethanol

recommended for deep anaesthesia

(for deep sedation about half the dose is required)

C (cold water, 5-15°C), T (temperate water, 10-25°C), W (warm water > 25°C)

 

Species

Family

Env.

 

Tricaine

(mg / l)

2-phenoxy-ethanol

(ml / l)



Salmo salar
(Atlantic salmon)
Salmonidae

C

25

0.20-0.40



Oncorhynchus sp.



(Pacific salmons)
Salmonidae

C

40-60

0.20-0.30



Gadus morhua
(cod)
Gadidae

C

50

??



Thymallus thymallus



(grayling)
Thymallidae

C

50-70

0.25



Oncorhynchus mykiss



(rainbow trout)
Salmonidae

C

60

0.30-0.40



Salmo trutta
(brown trout)
Salmonidae

C

50-75

0.20-0.30



Brycon moorei
(dorada)
Characidae

W

80-100

0.40



Perca fluviatilis
(Eurasian perch)
Percidae

T

90

0.40



Oreochromis niloticus



(Nile tilapia)
Cichlidae

W

100

0.40



Piaractus brachypomus



(colossoma)
Serrasalmidae

W

100

0.40



Prochilodus magdalenae



(bocachico)
Curimatidae

W

100

0.40



Barbus barbus
(barbel)
Cyprinidae

T

100

0.40



Leuciscus cephalus
(chub)
Cyprinidae

T

100

0.40



Morone saxatilis
(striped bass)
Percichtyidae

T

100

??



Cyprinus carpio
(common carp)
Cyprinidae

T-W

100-150

0.35-0.60



Lepomis macrochirus
(bluegill)
Centrarchidae

T-W

150

??



Carassius auratus
(goldfish)
Cyprinidae

T-W

150-250

> 0.40



Clarias gariepinus
(catfish)
Clariidae

W

120-300

0.40-0.60



Anguilla anguilla



(European eel)
Anguillidae

C-T

250-500

0.80-1.00

 

 

Use of anaesthetics in fish telemetry tagging procedures

 

 



Usual name
Tricaine

Exact name
3-amino benzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulphonate


Synonyms
:
Tricaine methanesulonate, salt of methanesulphonate, metacaine, MS-222TM, FinquelTM


Conditioning:
- crystals highly soluble in water (1 g / 9 ml)

- stock solutions short term)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle, stored at low temperature (crystals)

- Freezing (stock solution)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-60 mg / l

80-150 mg / l

± 100 mg / l

100-250 mg / l

_ 250 mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- Affects the olfactory epithelium (channel catfish)

- Acid solution, which can affect the motility of spermatozoa, and cause respiratory stress

- High cost


Toxicity
- non mutagenic

- No specific toxicity at the concentrations above


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- Insignificant residues after 24 h

- 21-d delay between anaesthesia and consumption (FDA)


Suggestions
- Add sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) before anaesthesia to buffer the anaesthetic solution (about 250 mg de NaHCO3 for 100 mg of tricaine)

- Do not buffer a stock solution before storage(inactivation)

 



Usual name
2-phenoxy-éthanol

Exact name
1-hydroxy-2-phenoxyetane


Synonyms
:
Ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, phenoxetol, phenoxethol, beta-hydroxyethyl phenyl ether, phenyl cellosolve


Conditioning:
- Dense (1.1 g / l), transparent liquid, with low solubility in water (27 g / l)

but high solubility in alcohol


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

0.2-0.4 ml / l

0.3-0.8 ml / l

± 0.4 ml / l

0.4-0.8 ml / l

0.8-1.0 ml / l



Drawbacks
:
- Irritations of epithelial tissues

- Little margin between induction and toxicity in salmonids


Toxicit
y
- Damages the liver and kidney at subletal doses in mammals, and possibly in fish

- Acute toxicity in some species


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- unknown

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
Prepared syringes for use in natural environments

 



Usual name
Quinaldine

Exact name
2-methylquinoline


Synonyms
:
none


Conditioning:
- Transparent liquid, with low solubility in water but high solubility in organic

solvents (alcohol, acetone)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

5-12 mg / l

2,5-20 mg / l

20-40 mg / l

30-?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- long delay between immersion and injection

- fish still sensible to tactile stimuli

- no action at pH < 6.0

- irritation of epithelia of operators

- strong, persistent odour

- strong inter individual variability of responses to anaesthesia


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature and alkalinity

- suspected as carcinogen for operators (larynx, pharynx)


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- no residue in fish muscles after 24 h

- accumulation in adipose tissue

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- solutions (60 % acetone, 40 % water) are highly stable, even in the long run

- elimination of tactile reflexes by a preliminary injection of a relaxing compound (gallamine triethiodide, pancurorium bromide,)

 



Usual name
Quinaldine

sulphate


Exact name
Quinate


Synonyms
:
No usual synonym


Conditioning:
- Light yellow crystalline powder, with high solubility in water


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-40 mg / l

< 75 mg / l

15-60 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- inconvenience typical of acid solutions (see Tricaine)

- fish still sensible to tactile stimuli

- irritation of epithelia of operators


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature and alkalinity

- suspected as carcinogen for operators (larynx, pharynx)


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- no residue in fish muscles after 24 h

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- buffer the solution prior to use (see tricaine)

 

 



Usual name
Benzocaine

Exact name
Ethyl aminobenzoate


Synonyms
:


p
-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, 4 aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl-p-aminobenzoate


Conditioning:
- Powder with low solubility in water but high solubility in organic solvents

(acetone, alcohol)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-50 mg / l

25-150 mg / l

25-100 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- High variability of delay between immersion and induction depending on fish size and water temperature

- Long recovery, especially in warm water species


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature increase

- No specific toxicity at the concentrations above


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- variability between species, accumulation in muscles

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- buffer the solution prior to use (see tricaine)

 



Usual name
Carbon

dioxide


Exact name
Carbon dioxide

 


Synonyms
:
CO2, Carbonic acid, carbonic gas, carbonic anhydride


Conditioning:
- non combustible gas non combustible, stored at -35°C (solid), or as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, powder); dissolved in water (6.75 %), with addition of sulphuric acid (3,95 %) to obtain the desired concentration in carbonic acid, at a pH in between 7 and 9


Conservation:
- no particularity for bicarbonate

- low temperature for CO
2

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

150-650 mg / l

150-650 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- mainly used for sedation

- risk that the operator looses conscience at _ 10 % CO
2 in the air

- risk inherent to the use of sulphuric acid

- risk inherent to the use of low temperature for solid CO
2

- hard to obtain deep anaesthesia, and to maintain the oxygen level


Toxicity
- risk inherent to hypercapnia in fish, especially with respect to osmoregulation


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- No permanence

- approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
mixing O2 and CO2 in pressurised cylinders to obtain stable concentrations

 

 

 7.9. APPENDIX I.

Summary of main results from studies dealing with effects of ultrasonic and radio transmitters on fish.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Atlantic sailfish

(
Istiophorus platypterus)

 
Externally attached   Field 8 2 h 56 min-28 h 21 min Seven fish survived. One fish sustained severe eye injury and was killed by a shark 6 h 25 min after release Jolley & Irby (1979)
Atlantic salmon -juveniles

(
Salmo salar)
Surgically-implanted 1.3 g Laboratory 5 tagged parr (127-172 mm), 5 tagged smolts (122-189 mm), 5 sham-tagged (surgery carried out, but no trans-mitter inserted) and controls

 
3-150 days No significant effects of tagging on growth, feeding or swimming behaviour in either parr or smolts. Recovery from the surgical implantation was rapid and total, infection was absent and physiological processes such as smoltification and maturation of testes in precocious parr were unaffected. Expulsion of the transmitter through the body wall occurred in a number of fish without adversely affecting the animals. Moore et al.,, (1990)
Atlantic salmon -parr

(
Salmo salar)
Externally attached 2.7 g in air, volume 0.4 ml, density 6.7 g/ml Laboratory 50 fish with ultrasonic tags, 50 fish with Carlin tags and 50 controls. 17 April 7 May Attachment of transmitter significantly affected the growth rates of the fish. Fish less than 160 mm in length lost weight and showed no change in length. Fish over 160 mm in length put on weight, however less than the controls. For fish between 160 and 180 mm in length, the increase in length and weight was significantly smaller in tagged fish than in untagged fish. For fish over 180 mm in length, no difference could be detected in the length gains between tagged and untagged fish, while the increase in weight was smaller in tagged fish than in controls.

 
Greenstreet & Morgan (1989)
Atlantic salmon -parr

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 0.8-0.9 g, 12.5 x 9 x 4.5 mm Laboratory tanks 8 tagged and 9 controls Eight days Three of the fish regurgitated the transmitters. The proportion of fish that fed was significantly higher in the control group compared with the tagged group. No food was eaten on day 1 or 8 by test fish that retained the transmitters. Food was also eaten by some fish that had rejected the tags.

 
Armstrong & Rawlings (1993)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Atlantic salmon -smolts

(
Salmo salar)
Externally attached and inserted in stomach Different sizes: 1.25-3.94 g in water, 4.00-6.67 g in air Laboratory In total 190 tagged, 79 sham tagged and 55 controls (< 20 cm)

 
  Effects of transmitters on stamina were measured. Critical swimming speeds were similar for fish in control groups and two of the groups with internal transmitters. The widest internal tag (19 x 10 cm) caused a significant decrement in swimming performance. Externally placed transmitters caused a decrease in swimming speed compared with untagged fish.

 
McCleave & Stred (1975)
Atlantic salmon -smolts

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 4.0 g in water, 5.6 g in air, 33 x 8 mm Laboratory In total 149 tagged fish and 152 controls (about 20 cm) Up to 24 hours The tagged fish were able to compensate for negative buoyancy induced by the tag if permitted to fill their swim-bladders by gulping air. Smolts denied access to the water surface after tagging never regained buoyancy. It is recom-mended to be aware of behavioural effects caused by negative buoyancy for 2-8 hours after tagging and release.

 
Fried et al.,, (1976)
Atlantic salmon

(
Salmo salar)
Inserted in stomach 10-16 g in water, (0.2-0.4 % of the fish weight in air), 6.59.6 x 1.9 cm

 
Field 40 (3-6 kg, 67-84 cm fork length) 21 June 8 November Five fish regurgitated the transmitter soon after release. Two salmon were recaptured 32 and 42 days after tagging and release. Neither showed ill effects from carrying the trans-mitter. McCleave et al.,, (1978)
Bass

-juvenile

(
Dicentrarchus

labrax
)

 
Surgically-implanted   Laboratory     Tagging had minimal effects on the subsequent survival and behaviour Moore et al.,, (1994)
Bluegill

(
Lepomis macrochirus)
Inserted in stomach 3.38 g, excess mass in water of 2.76 g (2.4 % of the fish's mass)

 
Laboratory 50 tagged , 22 sham handled and 94 controls (ca 130 g)   Effects of negative buoyancy was studied. The fish required about 300 min to reach hydrostatic equilibrium when adjust-ment proceeded within 0.5 m of the surface. Before neutral buoyancy was reached, pectoral fin movements increased. Longer times are required for deeper releases.

 
Gallepp & Magnuson (1972)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Bluegill

(
Lepomis macrochirus)
Surgically-implanted 2.81 g, 2.0 x 1.0 x 0.5 cm Raceway 40 tagged and 40 controls (mean mass 133 g)

 
8 weeks Mortality, adverse morphological effects, altered behaviour and limited healing in bluegills suggest that implanted transmitters impaired their health, especially at higher temperatures.

 
Knights & Lasee (1996)
Carp

(
Cyprinus carpio)
Surgically im-planted and inse-rted in stomach

 
  Field 1 implanted and 1 in stomach 7 weeks Tagged fish kept on having high moving ability and did not appear affected by handling stress Steinbach (1986)
Channel catfish

(
Ictalurus punctatus)
Surgically-implanted Small: 36.4 g Large: 72.8 g both 19 x 90 mm Pond 21 with small tags, 18 with large tags, 20 controls, 20 sham-implanted (mean 3.64 kg)

 
Average 112 days Surgical implantation of transmitters did not increase mortality or decrease growth. 25 of 35 fish lost their transmitters. Retention rate of small transmitters was significantly greater than that of large transmitters. Summerfelt & Mosier (1984)
Channel Catfish

(
Ictalurus punctatus)
Surgically-implanted Large: 20 x 87 mm, 2.0 % of fish mass

Small: 15 x 57, 0.5 % of fish mass

 
Laboratory 74 (0.7-5.2 kg) 23 days Within 23 days, two fish died and 39 fish expelled their transmitters. Tissue reactions and number of incision exits were significantly greater with transmitters of 2.0 % of body mass than with transmitters of 0.5 % of body mass. Marty & Summerfelt (1986)
Chinook salmon

(
Oncorhynchus tsawytscha)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted Large: 68 g in water, 11.5 ± 0.4 x 2.7 cm

Small: 34 g in water, 7.9
± 0.4 x 1.9 cm

 
Field In total 39 with external tags, 24 with internal tags and 64 controls (65-103 cm long, 1,4-12,7 kg)

 
During three migration periods During upstream migration travel times and percent returns did not differ between externally-tagged fish that retained their transmitters from point of release to upstream trapping facili-ties. Externally-tagged fish that lost their transmitters moved upriver more slowly than the controls, although percent returns were similar. Most internally tagged salmon eventually mig-rated downstream. Of those migrating upriver, none crossed the first trapping facility 6.5 km upriver form the release site.

 
Gray & Haynes (1979)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

Mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Cod

(
Gadus morhua)
Externally attached 8.26 g in air, 4 g in sea water, 5 x 1 cm Laboratory/

field
(50-70 cm)   Based on drag measurements in a flume, the extra output req-uired for tagged fish to maintain the same steady speed as un-tagged fish was between 3 % and 5 %. and to maintain the same constant rate of acceleration less than 1 %. They concluded that the swimming performance of cod observed by sector-scanning sonar in the southern North Sea was unlikely to have been affected in any significant way by the addition of a tag.

 
Arnold & Holford (1978)
Cod

(
Gadus morhua)
Inserted in stomach 5 g in water, 56 x 16 cm Laboratory 10 tagged (985 g), 10 controls (940 g) 35 days The transmitters did not seem to affect food intake or feeding behaviour. More than half of the salmon regurgitated the transmitter during the first 7 days of the experiment.

 
Lucas & Johnstone (1990)
Coho salmon

(
Oncorhynchus kisutch)
Inserted in stomach 20 g , 6.5 x 2.0 cm (some larger transmitters, 8 mm long, used in one year) Field 186 (405-725 mm)

 
1984-1987 61 salmon were not detected upriver from the release site. Some fish left the river. Some fish died because of predation or handling. Predators were observed in the vicinity of the tagging site, and tagged fish were susceptible to predation. The standard transmitter used did not appear to have any adverse effects on the salmon, although some problems were ex-perienced with the larger transmitters.

 
Eiler (1990)
Colorado squawfish

(
Ptychocheilus lucius)
Surgically-implanted < 1 % of the body mass of the fish Field 97   Results from field studies 1978-1985. No transmitter expulsion was detected. Growth rates of 14 recaptured fish did not differ from 59 nonimplanted dangler-tagged fish of the same size. There was no difference in mortality between implanted and dangler-tagged fish.

 
Tyus (1988).
Crownose ray

(
Rhinoptera bonasus)
Externally attached   Laboratory     Wing-beats/s was used as a measure of energy expenditure. Transmitter attachment had no immediate effect on ray swim-ming behaviour below a transmitter-to-ray mass ratio of 0.03.

 
Blaylock (1990)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Dace

(
Leuciscus leuciscus)

 

 
Externally attached 2.31 g in air, 0.9 g in water, 2.0 x 0.9 x 0.8-0.9 cm Semi-natural conditions 7 tagged and 19 controls (< 300 mm) One experiment of 6 days and one of

10 weeks
By the second day, the behaviour of the tagged fish appeared normal and they were integrating with the rest of the shoal. Median condition factors of tagged fish did not differ from those of untagged fish over a 10-week period. Results from field studies in River Frome indicate that release method affect the behaviour. Fish released immediately after tagging often moved significant distances soon after release, while fish allowed to acclimatise for 24 h and released remotely from a holding cage, did not exhibit such behaviour.

 
Beaumont et al.,, (1996)
Lake Ontario brown trout

(
Salmo gairdneri)



 
Externally attached and surgically-implanted   Field 8 externally

25 implanted
Spring and

fall
Transmitter attachment related mortality was 0 and 32 % (externally and surgically-tagged, respectively) Nettles et al.,, (1983)
Largemouth bass

(
Micropterus salmoides)
Externally attached Different types: 5.1-10.5 g in air, 3.3-7.0 g in wa-ter, tag weight in water 1.5-2.5 % of fish mass.

 
Pond     The feeding rate of tagged largemouth bass was lower than that of untagged fish over a 3.5 week period. It was concluded that weights of external transmitters in water should be less than 1.5 % of the fish weight.

 
Ross & McCormick (1981)
Largemouth bass

(
Micropterus salmoides)
Surgically-implanted   Hatchery pounds and laboratory 10 tagged and 10 controls + 8 fish for buoyancy compensation tests

 
  No differences in swimming movement or catchability between transmitter and control fish. All fish were observed feeding and spawning. Negative buoyancy of the transmitters affected bass temporarily, and fin beats increased only during the time it took the fish to adjust to the effect of the transmitter.

 
Crumpton (1982)
Muskellunge

(
Esox masquinongy)
Surgically-implanted   Field 5 6-11 days No apparent effect of tagging on equilibrium, swimming or feeding. No apparent abnormally high amount of movement immediately after release.

 
Crossman (1977)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Plaice

(
Pleuronectes platessa)

 
Externally attached 8.26 g in air, 4 g in sea water, 5 x 1 cm Laboratory/

field
(36-52 cm)   Based on drag measurements in a flume, the extra output req-uired for tagged fish to maintain the same steady speed as un-tagged fish was between 3 % and 5 % and to maintain the same constant rate of acceleration less than 1 %. It is conclu-ded that the swimming performance of plaice observed by sector-scanning sonar in the southern North Sea was unlikely to have been affected by the addition of a tag.

 
Arnold & Holford (1978)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted   Laboratory     Transmitter mass caused a highly significant decrease in spontaneous activity and avoidances/pursuits, while transmitter length decreased spontaneous activity only. The operation itself did not perturb the animals.

 
Zimmermann (1980)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Externally attached Mk V tags: single package. Mk VI tags:

two packages of equal size mo-unted symmetri-cally on each side of the fish. Both: 1.55 g in air, volume 0.78 ml, density 1.99 g/ml

 
Laboratory 8 fish with Mk V tags, 4 fish with Mk VI tags and 8 controls (length 11.5 ± 0.5 cm)   Effects on tail beat frequency (TBF) and operculum beat rate (OPB) of rainbow trout was measured at different swimming speeds. Both types of transmitters raised both TBF and OBR. The symmetrical tag affected the behaviour less, especially at low swimming speeds, even though the relative drag was greater by this transmitter. Lewis & Muntz (1984)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted Large: 2.2 g in air, 13 x 19 mm

Small: 1.0 g in air, 10 x 16 mm

 
Aquarium 15 with large transmitters and 15 with small transmitters

 
165 175 days Eight fish died during the experiment. Eight fish with large transmitters expelled the transmitter 42-175 days after implantation. Five fish with small transmitters expelled the transmitter 86-175 days after implantation. Chisholm & Hubert (1985)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Externally at-tached, surgi-cally implanted and inserted in stomach 3.0 ± 0.2 g, 2.9 ± 0.2 x 1.0 cm

 
Laboratory 80 (24.5-30.5 cm, 168-372 g) 2 weeks observation in tanks, followed by swimming tests.

 
Only one fish changed dominance rank after tagging. Externally-tagged fish had significantly lower exhaustion times in swimming tests than the other tagged groups and controls. Reduced feeding resulting from stomach insertion was not evident. Mellas & Haynes (1985)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 1-1.6 % of the body mass of the fish, 12.5 x 48 mm Laboratory 21 tagged, 5 sham-implanted and 8 controls (mean mass 327-392 g)

 
7 months No significant difference in mortality or growth occurred between control, sham-implanted and implanted groups. Transmitters became encapsulated by connective tissue. Three fish expelled transmitters via the body wall. Lucas (1989)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 10 g, 13 x 50 mm Pond 10 tagged fish and 10 controls (mean fork length 351 mm)

 
47 days Study close to spawning time. All fish survived and no transmitter expulsion appeared. There were no differences in weight, condition factor, or gonad development between tagged fish and controls. Martin et al.,, (1995)
Rainbow trout

(
Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Surgically-implanted 2.6 g in air, < 2 % of fish mass Laboratory 11 tagged and 8 controls (240-290 mm fork length)

 
7 days Studied effect of transmitters on social interactions. Dominant fish with dummy transmitters retained their rank and showed no differences from control fish in amounts of agonism and interaction time with subdominant fish. Swanberg & Geist (1997).
Razorback sucker

(
Xyrauchen texanus)
Surgically-implanted < 1 % of the body mass of the fish Field 9   Results from field studies 1978-1985. No transmitter expulsion were detected. Growth rates of 2 recaptured razorback suckers did not differ from 39 nonimplanted dangler-tagged fish of the same size. There was no difference in mortality between implanted and dangler-tagged fish.

 
Tyus (1988).
Rock bass

(
Ambloplites rupestris)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted

 
9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Studied effects on equilibrium and feeding. Rock bass did not seem suitable for internal tagging of the sizes used because of the shape and size of the fish.

 
Chamberlain (1979)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
Sauger

(
Stizostedion canadense)
Surgically-implanted   Experimental channels 21 x 2   All specimens which survived to the end of the experiment lost weight; the effect on growth was considered inconclusive. There did not seem to be any relationship between survival and sex or size and the implanted dummy transmitters.

 
Wrenn & Hackney (1979)
Smallmouth bass

(
Micropterus dolomieu)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted 9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Effects on equilibrium and feeding by tagging was studied. It was concluded that for short term tracking (1-2 days), external transmitters in front of the dorsal fin appear best. For long term tracking, internal transmitters seem best.

 
Chamberlain (1979)
Sockeye salmon

(
Oncorhynchus nerka)
Inserted in stomach 20 g , 6.5 x 2.0 cm (some larger transmitters, 8 mm long, used in one year) Field 398 (405-670 mm)

 
1984-1987 68 salmon were not detected upriver from the release site. Some fish left the river. Some fish died because of predation or handling. Predators were observed in the vicinity of the tagging site, and tagged fish were susceptible to predation. It was concluded that the standard transmitter used did not appear to have any adverse effects on the salmon, although some problems were experienced with the larger transmitters.

 
Eiler (1990)
Sockeye salmon

(
Oncorhynchus nerka)
Surgically-implanted   Field 168 Spawning season Radio transmitters were more stressful to fish than the appli-cation of Petersen disks. No evidence that such stress would result in immediate mortality, would impede the fish's ability to migrate to the spawning grounds, or cause the fish to drop out of the study area.

 
Schubert & Scarborough (1996)
Tilapia

(
Oreochromis aureus)

 
Surgically-implanted   Aquaculture tanks 39 (4 with motion sensitive transmitters) Up to 30 months One fish died. With one exception, all fish retained their transmitter until the end of the study. No infections. Low level of activity 12-24 days after surgery, however, the fish maintained their normal diurnal activity rhythm pattern. Suggested that tilapias need 3-4 days to completely compensate the negative buoyancy resulting from anaesthesia and tagging. Thoreaux & Baras (1997)

 

 

Appendix I continued.

 



 

Species

 


 

Tagging method


 

Transmitter

mass and size

 


 

Observation


 

Number of fish (fish size)


 

Observation

period


 

Results


 

Reference
               
White crappies

(
Pomoxis annularis)
Surgically-implanted Small: 3 g in water, 8 x 40 mm

Large: 4 g in water, 16 x 37 mm

 
Field 37 (265-327 mm, 315-530 g) April - October Recaptured fish were in good condition, the incisions were healing well and the fish had fed while carrying the transmitter. Guy et al.,, (1994)
White perch

(
Morone americana)
Externally attached, surgically-implanted and inserted in stomach

 
3.0 ± 0.2 g, 2.9 ± 0.2 x 1.0 cm Laboratory 100 (19.0-31.5 cm, 106-635 g) Swimming tests. 17 of the fish held for 45 days in aquarium afterwards

 
There was no significant difference in exhaustion times among tagged fish and controls. Reduced feeding resulting from stomach insertion was not evident.

 
Mellas & Haynes (1985)
Yellow perch

(
Perca flavescens)
Externally attached and surgically-implanted 9 x 40 mm and 11 x 34 mm Laboratory     Studied effects of tagging on equilibrium and feeding. Concluded that for short term tracking (1-2 days), external transmitters in front of the dorsal fin appear best. For long term tracking, internal transmitters seem best.

 
Chamberlain (1979)
Yellow perch

(
Perca flavescens)
Externally attached Different types, 5.1-10.5 g in air, 3.3-7.0 g in water, weight in water 1.5-2.5 % of fish weight

 
Pond     Tagged fish were more susceptible to predation and more sensitive to environmental stress than were controls. Feeding and respiration rates were similar among tagged and control groups over a 6-week period. It was concluded from the results that weights of external transmitters in water should be less than 1.5 % of the fish weight.

 
Ross & McCormick (1981)

 

7.10. Appendix II. Downloadable information sheets

Description of the ideal anaesthetics

(modified after Marking & Meyer, 1985, in Summerfelt & Smith, 1990)

 

      a)&#9;Induction < 15 min, and ideally < 3 min

      b)&#9;Recovery < 5 min

      c)&#9;No toxicity for fish, and large tolerance margins for concentration

      d)&#9;No persisting effect on fish physiology and behaviour

      e)&#9;Fast excretion and/or catabolism, leaving no residues in fish tissues

      f)&#9;No acclimatory or cumulative effects

      g)&#9;No danger for operators

      d)&#9;Easy preparation

      i)&#9;Low Cost

       

Indicative list of the cost (1998 levels) of the main anaesthetics used in fish tagging. The cost of 1 litre of anaesthetic solution is calculated for cyprinid species at 15°C.

 

Compound

Presentation

Cost

(ECU, VAT excl.)

Cost per litre of anaesthetic solution

(ECU, VAT excl.)

Amobarbital Powder 312 / 50 g

0.94

Benzocaine Crystals 91 / kg

0.01

2-phenoxy-ethanol Liquid 25 / l

0.01

Quinaldine (90 %) Liquid 96 / l

0.03

Quinaldine sulphate Powder 114 / 25 g

0.11

Tricaine Crystals 180 / 100 g

0.18

Xylocaine (lidocaine) Powder, Crystals 111 / 250 g

0.11

 

 

Tentative key for decision making when choosing between anaesthetics for fish handling and tagging

 

 



Criteria

    1.

Fish destined (C) or not destined (N) for consumption by humans

    2.

Deep anaesthesia required (D) or sedation only (S, e.g. weighing)

    3.

Natural environments (M), or experimental facilities, aquaculture (A)

    4.

High or low volume of anaesthetic solution requested (H / L)

Anaesthetics, in decreasing order of preference

        (*) = expensive, (#) = difficult to implement

CDMH:

Tricaine (stock solution)

CDML:

Tricaine (stock solution) (*), Hypothermia(#)

CDAH:

Tricaine (crystals), Hypothermia

CDAL:

Hypothermia, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

CSMH:

Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide (#), Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

CSML:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Tricaine (solution stock) (*),

Carbon dioxide (#)

CSAH:

Tricaine (crystals), Carbon dioxide

CSAL:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Carbon dioxide, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

NDMH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (stock solution)

NDML:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (stock solution) (*)

NDAH:

Tricaine (crystals), 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia

NDAL:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Hypothermia, Tricaine (crystals) (*)

NSMH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide, Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

NSML:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution) (*), Carbon dioxide (#)

NSAH:

2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate, Tricaine (stock solution), Carbon dioxide, Electrical anaesthesia (DC)

NSAL:

Electrical anaesthesia (DC), Carbon dioxide, 2-phenoxy-ethanol, Quinaldine sulphate

 

 

Typical concentrations of tricaine and 2-phenoxy-ethanol

recommended for deep anaesthesia

(for deep sedation about half the dose is required)

C (cold water, 5-15°C), T (temperate water, 10-25°C), W (warm water > 25°C)

 

Species

Family

Env.

 

Tricaine

(mg / l)

2-phenoxy-ethanol

(ml / l)



Salmo salar
(Atlantic salmon)
Salmonidae

C

25

0.20-0.40



Oncorhynchus sp.



(Pacific salmons)
Salmonidae

C

40-60

0.20-0.30



Gadus morhua
(cod)
Gadidae

C

50

??



Thymallus thymallus



(grayling)
Thymallidae

C

50-70

0.25



Oncorhynchus mykiss



(rainbow trout)
Salmonidae

C

60

0.30-0.40



Salmo trutta
(brown trout)
Salmonidae

C

50-75

0.20-0.30



Brycon moorei
(dorada)
Characidae

W

80-100

0.40



Perca fluviatilis
(Eurasian perch)
Percidae

T

90

0.40



Oreochromis niloticus



(Nile tilapia)
Cichlidae

W

100

0.40



Piaractus brachypomus



(colossoma)
Serrasalmidae

W

100

0.40



Prochilodus magdalenae



(bocachico)
Curimatidae

W

100

0.40



Barbus barbus
(barbel)
Cyprinidae

T

100

0.40



Leuciscus cephalus
(chub)
Cyprinidae

T

100

0.40



Morone saxatilis
(striped bass)
Percichtyidae

T

100

??



Cyprinus carpio
(common carp)
Cyprinidae

T-W

100-150

0.35-0.60



Lepomis macrochirus
(bluegill)
Centrarchidae

T-W

150

??



Carassius auratus
(goldfish)
Cyprinidae

T-W

150-250

> 0.40



Clarias gariepinus
(catfish)
Clariidae

W

120-300

0.40-0.60



Anguilla anguilla



(European eel)
Anguillidae

C-T

250-500

0.80-1.00

 

 

Use of anaesthetics in fish telemetry tagging procedures

 

 



Usual name
Tricaine

Exact name
3-amino benzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulphonate


Synonyms
:
Tricaine methanesulonate, salt of methanesulphonate, metacaine, MS-222TM, FinquelTM


Conditioning:
- crystals highly soluble in water (1 g / 9 ml)

- stock solutions short term)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle, stored at low temperature (crystals)

- Freezing (stock solution)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-60 mg / l

80-150 mg / l

± 100 mg / l

100-250 mg / l

_ 250 mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- Affects the olfactory epithelium (channel catfish)

- Acid solution, which can affect the motility of spermatozoa, and cause respiratory stress

- High cost


Toxicity
- non mutagenic

- No specific toxicity at the concentrations above


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- Insignificant residues after 24 h

- 21-d delay between anaesthesia and consumption (FDA)


Suggestions
- Add sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) before anaesthesia to buffer the anaesthetic solution (about 250 mg de NaHCO3 for 100 mg of tricaine)

- Do not buffer a stock solution before storage(inactivation)

 



Usual name
2-phenoxy-éthanol

Exact name
1-hydroxy-2-phenoxyetane


Synonyms
:
Ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, phenoxetol, phenoxethol, beta-hydroxyethyl phenyl ether, phenyl cellosolve


Conditioning:
- Dense (1.1 g / l), transparent liquid, with low solubility in water (27 g / l)

but high solubility in alcohol


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

0.2-0.4 ml / l

0.3-0.8 ml / l

± 0.4 ml / l

0.4-0.8 ml / l

0.8-1.0 ml / l



Drawbacks
:
- Irritations of epithelial tissues

- Little margin between induction and toxicity in salmonids


Toxicit
y
- Damages the liver and kidney at subletal doses in mammals, and possibly in fish

- Acute toxicity in some species


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- unknown

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
Prepared syringes for use in natural environments

 



Usual name
Quinaldine

Exact name
2-methylquinoline


Synonyms
:
none


Conditioning:
- Transparent liquid, with low solubility in water but high solubility in organic

solvents (alcohol, acetone)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

5-12 mg / l

2,5-20 mg / l

20-40 mg / l

30-?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- long delay between immersion and injection

- fish still sensible to tactile stimuli

- no action at pH < 6.0

- irritation of epithelia of operators

- strong, persistent odour

- strong inter individual variability of responses to anaesthesia


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature and alkalinity

- suspected as carcinogen for operators (larynx, pharynx)


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- no residue in fish muscles after 24 h

- accumulation in adipose tissue

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- solutions (60 % acetone, 40 % water) are highly stable, even in the long run

- elimination of tactile reflexes by a preliminary injection of a relaxing compound (gallamine triethiodide, pancurorium bromide,)

 



Usual name
Quinaldine

sulphate


Exact name
Quinate


Synonyms
:
No usual synonym


Conditioning:
- Light yellow crystalline powder, with high solubility in water


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-40 mg / l

< 75 mg / l

15-60 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- inconvenience typical of acid solutions (see Tricaine)

- fish still sensible to tactile stimuli

- irritation of epithelia of operators


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature and alkalinity

- suspected as carcinogen for operators (larynx, pharynx)


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- no residue in fish muscles after 24 h

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- buffer the solution prior to use (see tricaine)

 

 



Usual name
Benzocaine

Exact name
Ethyl aminobenzoate


Synonyms
:


p
-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, 4 aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl-p-aminobenzoate


Conditioning:
- Powder with low solubility in water but high solubility in organic solvents

(acetone, alcohol)


Conservation:
- Opaque bottle and cap (oxidation by air and light)

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

25-50 mg / l

25-150 mg / l

25-100 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- High variability of delay between immersion and induction depending on fish size and water temperature

- Long recovery, especially in warm water species


Toxicity
- increases with water temperature increase

- No specific toxicity at the concentrations above


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- variability between species, accumulation in muscles

- not approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
- buffer the solution prior to use (see tricaine)

 



Usual name
Carbon

dioxide


Exact name
Carbon dioxide

 


Synonyms
:
CO2, Carbonic acid, carbonic gas, carbonic anhydride


Conditioning:
- non combustible gas non combustible, stored at -35°C (solid), or as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, powder); dissolved in water (6.75 %), with addition of sulphuric acid (3,95 %) to obtain the desired concentration in carbonic acid, at a pH in between 7 and 9


Conservation:
- no particularity for bicarbonate

- low temperature for CO
2

Typical concentrations:

Salmonids

Cyprinids

Cichlids, Characids

Catfishes

Eels

150-650 mg / l

150-650 mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l

?? mg / l



Drawbacks
:
- mainly used for sedation

- risk that the operator looses conscience at _ 10 % CO
2 in the air

- risk inherent to the use of sulphuric acid

- risk inherent to the use of low temperature for solid CO
2

- hard to obtain deep anaesthesia, and to maintain the oxygen level


Toxicity
- risk inherent to hypercapnia in fish, especially with respect to osmoregulation


Permanence, legal aspects
:
- No permanence

- approved for fish food (FDA)


Suggestions
mixing O2 and CO2 in pressurised cylinders to obtain stable concentrations

 

 

 


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