Research of marine resources in Icelandic waters includes all studies of exploitable stocks of fish, crustaceans and molluscs as well as research pertaining to whales, straddling stocks and underexploited species.

Stock assessments of all major stocks play the most important role within research of exploitable resources. Regular sampling is conducted from landings and the individuals length measured and weighed as well as determining their sex and gonad maturity. Moreover, otoliths or scales are sampled for age determinations. With available statistics on landings the total catch can be divided into age groups both by numbers and weight.

In addition to regular sampling of landings and data on catch per unit of effort (e.g. kg of cod per each hour trawled) from mandatory skipper''s fishery log-books, a great amount of fishery independent information is obtained from research surveys. These include demersal fish and benthic invertabrate trawl surveys as well as pelagic fish acoustic surveys. The various data are utilized in stock abundance estimates using a number of different stock assessment models based on a one species or multi-species approach.

An increasing attention is paid to research on behaviour, availability and migration of fish by tagging as well as on species interactions, feeding and growth within the food chain. Finally, research is aimed at minimizing the catch of juveniles by improving fishing gear as well as by regular closure of spawning and juvenile areas.